Types of reinforcement: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.
Positive reinforcement: involves the presentation of a pleasant stimulus after the desirable behavior. Positive reinforcement has the effect of increasing the preceding behavior.
Punishment: is any aversive (unpleasant) stimulus which follows undesirable behavior. Punishment is intended to decrease the undesirable behavior which preceded it.
Negative reinforcement: is used after punishment has begun and stopping the punishment when the desirable behavior occurs is called the use of negative reinforcement. Therefore, negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of the desirable behavior being emitted through the termination of the aversive stimulus.