According to W. Huitt and J. Hummel (1997), Observational or Vicarious Learning is based primarily on the work of Albert Bandura. Bandura and his colleagues were able to demonstrate through a variety of experiments that the application of consequences was not imperative for learning to take place. Rather learning could occur through the simple processes of observing someone else's activity. This work provided the foundation for Bandura's later work in social cognition. Bandura formulated his findings in a four-step pattern which combines a cognitive view and an operant view of learning.